Sport and physical activity in general are of great benefit to healthy people and people with diabetes, and they should be promoted throughout a person’s life. Their beneficial influence has long been described in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is expressed in an improved quality of life by controlling body weight, improving the condition of the cardiovascular system, resulting in a slower pulse and lower blood pressure, as well as improving the fat profile (cholesterol and triglycerides). This positive impact is also supported by a number of studies in adolescents. Physical activity leads to increased blood supply to the muscles and to an increased insulin sensitivity and insulin-independent transport of glucose. EMA toronto will help you choose the right sport for you.
Physical activity is an important part of regulating blood sugar levels along with insulin and diet regimens in people with type 1 diabetes. Maintaining regular physical activity is associated with lower levels of glycated hemoglobin without a higher risk of severe diabetes. Mild to moderate physical activity after eating may be an effective way to avoid a sharp rise in blood sugar. On the other hand, regular moderate to intense physical activity is associated with better control of diabetes by determining about 1/3 of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) change.
Diabetes should not limit the ability of people to practice their chosen sport. Many famous athletes have proven this. Among them are Steve Redgrave – five-time Olympic gold medalist, Gary Hall – five Olympic gold medalist in swimming, Brandon Morrow – baseball player.
10-20% of all episodes of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) in children and adolescents are associated with a physical load that is greater than usual, with a longer duration or frequency.
What are the factors influencing the exercise of physical activity in people with diabetes mellitus?
The main factors limiting the exercise of a sport among people with diabetes mellitus are as follows:
the fear of a fall in blood sugar (hypoglycaemia)
poor control of diabetes
poor physical condition
Types of sports and their influence on blood sugar.
Physical activity is generally aerobic and anaerobic. The difference is in the consumption of oxygen. In aerobic sports, breathing delivers oxygen to the muscles and thus energy to maintain their work. Anaerobic exercise lacks oxygen and forms lactate (lactic acid). Glycogen serves as an energy source for muscle function. When glycogen reserves are exhausted, usually after about 2 hours, fatigue and discomfort occur. Therefore, these sports are short-lived and before exercise they need to take carbohydrates before and during exercise to provide enough energy. Such sport is, for example, the sprint – a great physical effort for a short period compared to a marathon that is associated with a prolonged physical exercise and is an example of aerobic sport.
Anaerobic exercises are effective for building a clean muscle mass. Calories are burned more efficiently in organs that have more muscles. Anaerobic exercises are especially beneficial in regulating body weight because they help burn more calories even when the body is at rest.